Packaging color research by tobacco companies


the door slides come through ah yes but
it might take it a little bit of time through this is such a large file okay
well it’s not email me and I can send you a link to a box for the halves okay
I’m sorry thank you hi welcome to today’s opieop
it’s our directors webinar entitled packaging color research by tobacco
companies the pack as a product characteristic I’m Christine hunter the
deputy director of the Office of behavioral and Social Sciences Research
at the National Institutes of Health before I introduce today’s speaker I
have a few housekeeping items to cover first today’s webinar is being recorded
and the recording will be available in about a month and it will be on the
obssr website today’s presentation will be followed by a question-and-answer
session all phone lines are going to be muted during the webinar and questions
and comments will not be taken over the phone but will be been taken using the
WebEx question and answer feature to ask a question or send a comment click on QA
select all panelists type in your question and then select send feel free
to send a question at any time during the webinar following the presentation
dr. bill Elwood who coordinates the webinar series will facilitate the
question and answer session and ask your questions to the presenter so now let’s
get started to the matin with the main event I’m really pleased to introduce
today’s presenter dr. Stanton glance dr. glance is the University of California
San Francisco truth initiatives distinguished professor of tobacco
control he conducts research on a wide range of topics including the health
effects of second-hand smoke particularly on the cardiovascular
system and the efficacy of different tobacco control policies to reflect the
changing tobacco landscape his work now includes a cigarette and
marijuana doctor glance is a principal investigator for the twenty million
dollar five year tobacco centers of regulatory science
funded by the US Food and Drug Administration of the National
Institutes of Health the overarching theme of this Center is the development
of improved models to inform tobacco product regulatory strategies that
integrate one the impacts of tobacco use on health costs to risk perceptions
perceived acceptability consumer responses to pro tobacco marketing and
anti tobacco messages and other social determinants of tobacco use and thirds
evaluate the rapid changes in risk due to tobacco use and secondhand smoke
exposure particularly related to cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction
is my great pleasure to welcome dr. glance to the ouvea star director’s
webinar for his presentation again titled packaging color research hi
tobacco couple companies the pack as a product characteristic and now I’ll turn
it over to you dr. Sam thank you okay well thank you for having me this is
work I did the collaboration with Lauren limpet I was hoping would be here but
has had so family which us to deal with so probably won’t be the context for
this research is that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products
and when the tobacco companies change a product at a substantial way they need
to get the abuse and will the discussion and policy considerations of those
changes so far has been focused on the physical product itself and so we wanted
to look at whether or not things like the product packaging should be
considered as also key elements that are in many ways so different from the
tobacco of the product itself I have nothing to disclose I don’t do any paid
consulting work for buddy and the one thing I would add and
I just realized was sitting to Erica’s introduction I have to update my buyers
biography because I’m very pleased to say that our twenty million dollar key
quartz just got renewed for another five years and we’re going to be focusing
mostly on the new tobacco products like these cigarettes and heat not burn
products so when you think about cigarette packs but the way that most
people think about them and this is all accurate but incomplete is that they
serve to attract attention to the product to communicate brand imagery
about the product to target specific groups for example having PACs directed
at women or that one minority group or another they also use them as I’ll show
you to communicate health information and a more precise statement would be to
communicate inaccurate health information which we think the
government needs to clamp down on and and as an illustration of the way that
the tobacco companies use the PAC to communicate inaccurate health
information these are some old cigarette packs for Marlboro Marlboro Lights and
Marlboro ultralights and these packs are illegal today because a great deal of
research leading to a decision by a US federal court that found the tobacco
companies guilty of violation of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt
Organizations Act as well as Congress in the laws that gave the FDA authority
over tobacco found that labeling packages as cigarette packages is light
or ultralight this fundamentally misleading to the public because these
are read as health messages the Marlboro Lights are safer than Marlboro Reds and
Barbara ultra lights are safer than Marlboro Lights and
the tobacco companies knew for a long long time that in fact the risks
associated with these different cigarettes are all about the same and by
advertising them as light or ultra light there makes me an applied health claim
which is misleading to the public as fraudulent and so they’re not allowed to
do that anymore so now this is what they do instead of having using the word
light and ultra light they just simply color-coded the packages they’re they
just the packages are the same they just got rid of the words and before the law
took effect and prohibited the use of these product descriptors the tobacco
companies spent about a year educating their customers about the color change
and the color coding it means the same thing as the words but the words are
gone and we and a lot of other people have felt that this is something that
the FDA really needed to clamp down on and prohibit this kind of color coding
which is actually illegal in some countries now we know that the tobacco
companies did this quite thoughtfully because this is an example of consumer
information and information for sellers that were distributed in this case by
Philip Morris before the change took place and they were very explicit about
it the old Barbra lights are now marlboro gold and so the color is being
used to encode a health claim namely this is a safer cigarette than Marlboro
Reds and I’ll come back to that in some detail later so this game of using color
coding is a way of making health claims has been pretty well documented and
understood for quite a long time and and what we wanted to do was look at other
more sophisticated ways that the cup are using the pack word where you can
argue that the pack itself is an ingredient in the in the tobacco product
just like tobacco is and as I’ll show you the tobacco companies have done
research showing that they can change the precede flavor of a cigarette by
simply changing the color of the pack without touching the physical cigarette
at all and this word is summarized in two papers the Lord and I published in
the last couple of years the first one in tobacco control is packaging color
researched by tobacco companies the pack is a product characteristic and the
second paper published in nicotine and tobacco research with implications of
tobacco industry research on packaging colors for designing health warning
labels so first I’m going to talk about the first paper now the tobacco
companies have a very very sophisticated understanding of how people perceive
their products and something called sensation transference this is an idea
developed by a psychologist named Luis Tuscan an academic back in the 1950s and
and what he demonstrated was that a consumer unconsciously assesses a
product based on its packaging and for example yellow margarine tastes more
like butter than large reutlitz another color margarine is not normally yellow
but they put coloring in it to make it taste like butter and that change is in
the pack color of a cigarette pack or other consumer product effects the
perception of the product taste and and another very very important point that
came out of tehse kids were that was the consumers don’t distinguish between the
package and the product or they’re just very tightly intertwined and we think
it’s important that the FDA and other regulatory body
throughout the world really pay attention to this because it’s a reality
that the tobacco companies have used for a long time in order to sell their
products and manipulate their consumers and today the the real focus has been on
the physical product itself so this is a classic example of what we’re talking
about so Philip Moore Marlboro was originally a product of cigarette for
women and in the in the 50s I think it was the fifties Philip Morris decided
they wanted to turn it into a cigarette for men and they spent seven years
researching on how to do it they hired Cheston and his color
Research Institute to help them do it and they did experiments where they put
the same cigarettes in different packages and what they found was the
light colored pact conveyed the deceitful mild and intended for women
and so them perceived the perception when using the cigarettes whether these
were mild cigarettes of the kind of women would like if they if they went to
the current red pack then the cigarettes were perceived as stronger in flavor and
ferment and it’s important to realize that the cigarettes were exactly the
same physical entities in these experiments and so what Philip Morris
did is they went from this pack which was the earlier Marlboro pack that had
been perceived as women’s cigarette to the classic Marlboro pack where it’s a
strong package for men and the packaging change that was the single most
important element of changing the perception of the product now they also
supported this with advertising and and here we see a class at wherever ad
actually the 30s the added charm of smoking barbarous cigarettes you know
for the poor woman and then they replaced that with the famous Marlboro
cowboy developed by Leo Burnett advertise and and switch the image and
the perception of the product from a mild women cigarette to a strong full
flavored cigarette for men now we know a lot about how the tobacco companies do
this and why they do it because here at UCSF we have a collection called the
truth tobacco industry documents library and it’s named that because the truth
initiative put up the initial money to create this collection and it has about
90 million pages of previously secret internal tobacco industry documents in
it the original box of documents was delivered anonymously to me about four
or five thousand pages and back in 1994 and we slowly collected some other
collections and then as a result of all the state litigation against the tobacco
industry and then the federal racketeering suit those documents have
been made available and we’ve added to the collection and in fact under the
order issued by Judge glass Kessler in the federal lawsuit the companies have
been ordered to continue producing documents to the public which means us
until 2021 so this collection is continuing to grow now a lot of people
go into the tobacco industry documents looking for evidence of bad behavior by
the cigarette companies things like marketing to kids or trying to buy off
politicians or corrupt the process of various ways and there’s certainly lots
and lots of that kind of stuff in there but the collection also includes a huge
amount of research conducted by the tobacco
companies both on their products and on the marketing of their products
including packaging and and their research is very sophisticated and they
have a lot of money to do it and there’s a huge amount to learn and so the stuff
I’m going to be presenting today is that kind of tobacco industry documents
research where we’re going in and looking at the industry’s unpublished
research that they use in their own management of the companies and just to
give you an idea of the magnitude I typed color packaging into the search
engine and got back seventy-seven thousand seven hundred and eighty nine
dot so there’s a lot of stuff in there related to this and in fact one of the
things that popped up is this document which is the educational materials that
they produced to give to retailers to educate them about the fact that
Congress passed a law prohibiting the use of terms light and my ultra light
and mild effective in June 2010 and this document which goes on for many pages is
essentially a code sheet to say if the customer comes in asking for Marlboro
whole flavored Marlboro give them Marlboro red if they want Bell runner
I’m pardon me barber ultralights give them Barbara silver and it’s a key key
for consumer or for the event for the retailer’s on how to educate consumers
on how to interpret the new color coding of the packs and it goes on in great
length with many examples and interestingly it says don’t give this to
the consumer and you know I’ve wondered ever since we saw this why the FDA has
not issued an order prohibiting the companies from continuing to do this
color coding it’s a violation of the Family Smoking
Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and it’s also a violation of the RICO
settlement which for which prohibits the companies from these kind of misleading
communications and I think that one of the reasons that the companies are
getting away with it is that the lawyers are used to thinking about words not
colors their lawyers not artists but the tobacco companies understand this very
very well another thing that’s very very important that we found in the document
so this is an RJ Reynolds document and I can’t English so from the 80s I forgot
to put the date on there but when they’re talking about the sensation
transference that is the application of cheston’s research they say the package
and the product of one and the same to the consumer due to sensation
transference the package generates expectations and people generally get
what they expect and repeat repeated tests consumers will deploy one product
superior to another although only the packages or labels are different so
again the just simply changing the packaging changes the perception of the
product in a way that you could also obtain by changing a physical product
and we think that regulators need to realize and treat these things are
equivalent another statement in here which is very important from the legal
and policy point of view is shape and near the bottom a package can create a
new product and under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act
if tobacco companies create new products they need specific FDA approval for
doing that and to the best of my knowledge there’s nothing in the way the
FDA assesses changes the products that exclusively takes this understand
into account and they need to another thing this is all from a briefing the an
internal briefing you know with there is no noise from our shower but there was
no date on it is that color is a hidden persuader
since repeat its appeal as subconscious people transfer its effects into the
contents of the packages and in cigarette packaging colors have become
standardized cues such as red for full flavor green for menthol white or silver
for low ultra low tar cigarettes so this is something the industries understood
for a very very long time and it’s something that regulators in at least in
the United States have not caught up with yet again there are a few countries
like Uruguay which prohibit this kind of manipulation but here in the US there’s
no restrictions on it whatsoever now I’m not expecting you to read this
slide but this is a table that lists all the different studies we found where the
various tobacco companies were evaluating the relationship between
package color and perception of the product and you can see there’s a ton of
them being done by all the companies over a long period of time so there’s a
very large weldable of body of evidence in research conducted internally by the
tobacco companies on the connection between package color and procede
perception of the product and and again if you look at all this together so
there are some patterns that emerge over and over and over again full flavor and
rich taste is for pastor red brown and blue red and blue are perceived as more
satisfying red black and brown or procedures stronger blue is perceived as
smoother silver has a good aftertaste and white and light are low strength
which means healthier in terms of how consumers for
Shiva and mild which is somewhere between the low strength and full
flavors blue silver and gray and these are widely understood in the industry
and then menthol is a cool cool and fresh which is done with green and
silver and in fact up in Canada with Ontario banned the advertisement of
menthol cigarettes they simply again spent some time educating their
consumers just the green means menthol so these are just some examples of you
know flavored cigarettes from two companies here of Philip Morris and
Woodson I think it’s made by Reynolds now it is again Pall Mall and what you
stripes are red then different brands of menthol or green light mild or our
silver and and white and and these are very very important understandings of
how to cut the packaging color is manipulated to communicate information
and claims to the consumer which are illegal in the United States now to give
you a specific example of some of the company research that we found where
they were really looking at the impact of pack color on the package to increase
on – I already oh yeah so I already said a couple of these
things I apologize but again the experience of smoking the cigarettes and
the research techniques that they use to do this are traditional market surveys
where they gotta just ask people what brands they use and how they perceive
the brands but they also do experimental research is what they call Association
tests where they show people or have different packages or do people
cigarettes and different packages where they keep their cigarette
say and then ask people how they perceive tasting them they also take do
it’s called ocular tracking eye tracking where they have people looking at
packages or advertising through packages and using the laser they can track how
their eyes moving what they’re looking at on the packages and something all
Takia scopic testing which is a variant of ocular measurements and then this
American tobacco came up with something they called a repertory grid which is a
way to have consumers scaled the perception of the product on a series of
variables and this is the b80 reparatory grid from back in 1978 and they this is
just one little piece of a much larger set of scales but when they’re asking
people do you perceive the smoke as hot or cool ruffer’s smooth harder easy draw
satisfying whether it’s musty and stale of the fresh how they perceive the
sidestream smoke and so on and again they would do experiments
where they kept the cigarettes the same and change the packaging and then
measured how people’s perception of smoking the cigarettes changed based on
changes in the packaging and again as I said earlier red and blue packs are
better tasting and more satisfying so to give you an example of how they did this
specifically there’s extensive documentation in the documents about
back in 1979 how r.j. Reynolds redesigned the camel package and this is
a period of increasing public concern about the dangers of smoking and and
they were concerned that people felt that camels were too strong which meant
too dangerous and so they wanted to reduce the perception that Camel
filtered cigarettes were stronger that is more danger
that other cigarettes but they wanted to maintain the other desired product
perceptions namely that they taste them good and were satisfied that they
delivered an adequate amount of tar negati that that they were smooth that
they were easy to hail now you would think that these perceptions are all
taken together would be a stronger cigarette but they wanted to maintain
these very detailed perceptions without at the same time creating the perception
that they were so strong as to be bad and then at the same time they wanted to
maintain the brand attributes that were used to their marketing of avascular
young adult rugged cigarette so they did a whole bunch of experiments and this is
what they came up with in terms of how the package should be redesigned to
change the perceptions of the product without changing the product so they
reduce the red band to increase the amount of white surface area on the pack
which reduced Ray’s perceptions they lightened the brown tones to reduce
strength perceptions they change the closure seal on the pack from brown to
white with a red stripe to match the banding which reduce straight
perceptions but I just saw lower limb purges on that’s good so she can help
answer the questions we do to straight perceptions but look better and improve
recognition and then change the panel and so on
and so if you look at the changes they made from the old back to the new packs
here you see these changes that were implemented as a way to move the way
people perceived using Camel cigarettes and and the packages that have continued
to evolve from the older ones and the ones that we were just talking about to
bring in you know more blues and Silver’s to make it look more or less
dangerous and then they came up with also with patch the word to hide in two
specific promotional campaigns or and if you look at the ones at the bottom the
green ones are local right they don’t have to tell you that they’re there and
so these are all things that we think to be subject to FDA regulation and any
change to the pack any change to the colors to the fonts any of those things
we think should be treated no differently than if the company wants to
change the mixture of tobacco in the product so moving on to the second paper
we wrote is what can we learn from the tobacco companies about warning labels
and the best way to use warning labels to educate consumers about the dangers
of tobacco and a lot of this grows out of their research on how to make the
pack stand out particularly when it’s in a product display and they find that
black and red are highly prominent that red and yellow seize attention the
contrast is important reds or blacks on white and that that yellow is a danger
and in fact another thing which we didn’t put in the slide there’s the
black text on a white background which is the most common way the warning
labels are used actually looks like it’s conveying health information positive
health information so the warning label using black text on white type is
probably not good idea this is an example of actually
this slide isn’t that out of order this is where dat was doing tacky scopic
testing to compare a couple of packages where they they have very similar
information on them but with different layouts and they measure how long it
took people to recognize the pack and how their eyes moved around back in
terms of the warning label question the main thing that we would take away from
this is learn from these black and yellow are awarded message and also this
is something that’s very very well well understood if you simply look at highway
warning signs a warning signs are black text on a yellow background so you know
we think that the warning labels that are being developed and required by
governments should be yellow with a background with a black text and we took
one of the old FDA warning this one from lung disease and simply change the
background from the out white to yellow and I think if you look at this you
would see that this is much more i grabbing than than the traditional black
on white so what can you conclude from all of this one is the companies use pax
colors to manipulate consumer perceptions of taste sprays and the harm
of cigarettes and this is very important because the under the Family Smoking
Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in order to make a reduced harm claim with
what under the law is called a by risk tobacco product claims they need
explicit permission from the FDA to do it and there’s a very very rigorous
process that the industry is required to go through that among other things shows
that the their scientific evidence to support the claim of reduce harm and
that the consumers will actually understand the reduced harm claims and
this and also that allowing the companies to make such claims is good
for the public health which is the broad standard written into the Family Smoking
Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and and it’s important that the federal
government start taking making use of the understanding of the tobacco
companies have at this point and make sure that they stopped using package
design changes or in fact the current package design changes to mislead
consumers and violate the law another very important point that comes out of
this is that Pat color changes not only communicate product information life is
this a masculine or a feminine product or is it strong and weepin it
effectively creates new products and this is a very very important
understanding because the standards in the law for introducing B products is
different than the standards for tinkering with existing products and
finally industry research on visual prominence suggests that using black on
yellow ceases and keeps eternity longer than other combinations and an
explicitly signal stage for example if you look at the cigarette packs
throughout them I don’t think you find competitors the same color is my
screaming yellow bicycle wizard so what are the policy
recommendations first we think companies should be prevented from using packaging
to deceive customers the FDA has the legal authority to do this they need to
do it second that the company should be
required to report Cullerton at night along with them
the management reporting of system product changes and those should be
evaluated by the FDA as to whether they’re permitted or not just the same
as they would have to evaluate a physical product change and the way
originally did take the position the paga disables a part of the product and
pre market reviews but they’ve kind of backed off from that and the FDA initial
position is right and they need to reassure them and finally make health
warning labels black text on yellow back so that’s what we learned from the
tobacco companies and I’d be happy to take any questions terrific
thank you so much and all yeah also I said I noticed that Lauren is here so
you should let her answer questions too so as well as B so I’m happy to take
questions hi Stan this is Erica so Lauren is on
but she has a bad connection so we’re going to leave her muted but she may be
able to help answer questions over chat okay um Stan just a couple of questions
um the regarding color is that hidden persuader on on packaging we we know
that your your work obviously is only with tobacco products but is there
research that that the connotations the hidden
persuasions associated between color and packaging applies across products yes if
you if you look at cheston’s early work he wasn’t just looking at tobacco
products he was looking at a wide variety of products and in fact we have
a paper in review right now which shows about sugar sweetened beverages because
it turns out that for about 15 years the tobacco to Philip Morris and r.j.
Reynolds were in the sugar sweet beverage business they watch 7up
kool-aid why and punch several other products and they took and transferred
the technology they had developed for cigarettes into the marketing of these
other products particularly to increase their appeal to kids so yeah and all of
this transfers right over these are not unique to imagine okay do you first do
you find um have you found similar coloring trends with um vaping products
for marijuana you know that’s a good question we haven’t looked at that yet
but you know in the marijuana market isn’t as well developed yet as the
cigarette market and in fact one of my great fears out illegal I mean I
actually support legalization of marijuana because I think the war on
drugs has been a disaster but one of the big concerns that mr. market becomes
corporatize and we bring the kind of modern product engineering
they’re in the marijuana business we’ve had in tobacco and other other of the
junk food and other things that we’re going to see big increases in the health
health cost using these products as as the marketing becomes more sophisticated
that’s just beginning to happen now and we haven’t yet seen the entry of these
big companies into the marijuana market yet but I can tell you this back of
companies we’re thinking about getting into the marijuana business back in the
60s and the 70s and we’re getting ready to do it and then the war on drugs came
along and they decided not to the tobacco and bought into the marijuana
business in Canada where it’s legal and I haven’t read the news story but just
today there was a report coca-cola is get interested in getting into the
marijuana it’s a way to make up for the back of fuel dealers weakened sugar
sweetened beverages so you know I think that good you know public health
oriented regulation of marijuana would begin with what would be gold standard
for tobacco which is plain packaging and I haven’t really talked about that in
this presentation I was trying to keep it narrowly focused for many countries
now you know what the fact that packaged inherently misleading by requiring
standardized packaging where the color of the package is specified by the
government and the different product some elements are in there in a
standardized fontana standardized size Australia was the first country to
implement plain packaging it’s actually spreading around the world and you know
we’ve been urging here in California we were urging the public the health
authorities and the state there are a lot of Bureau
to simply require plain packaging marijuana products so that we avoid all
these problems that you run into with that we’ve had with cigarettes
particularly in get it not using kid flavored colors so kid-friendly powers
making the work-life champion Tories so you could apply you would recommend the
same kind of packaging regulations for tobacco all tobacco products each
cigarettes and marijuana yes okay really I really should have have plain
packaging for everything and you know that way the product is made available
to people but the package cannot be used for in order to deceive people senses to
make complete the different products are different when in fact they’re the same
Oh Lauren points out that mild and smooth flavors in other products are
also like colored yes that’s right I mean the general the general
principles that I outlined here about the effect of different colors on
perception those are broad principles and a lot of Chester’s work in the
subsidies were cloud applied across products um what’s known about how these
color manipulations ultra effective processing specifically
are these all changes in reflective processing or do you see changes and
automatic processing as well you know I don’t know the answer to that
I mean maybe I know Laura can’t talk but she can taxi it Lauren when you were
looking at the documents and you see those kind of distinctions
okay she just said cheston’s where it says in subconscious okay um you
mentioned the family Tobacco Control Act and enforcing the packaging regulations
is that expressly in um in tact or is is what you’re recommending subject to
interpretation well the law the law gives the FDA broad authority over the
products and their marketing which would include packaging it’s a question of
whether the FDA wants to use that they have they have the legal authority to do
any of these things running now no doubt the tobacco companies would then sue
them but you know the FDA should just do the right thing as I said earlier the
law already prohibits the use of light and mild and as does the judge’s ruling
in the RICO case and I continue to be puzzled as to why you know given this
large volume of research you have any industry document so you don’t even have
to go out and prove it I mean to give this cream you know they’ve already
showed it and have acted on it and I don’t stand why the Department of
Justice isn’t going into court and bringing an action for contempt to court
and violating the racketeering order on or the everyone to FDA issuing an order
prohibiting this kind of color coding because the law doesn’t outlaw the use
of the words like mine it says that you’re not supposed to communicate
okay actual evidence of health benefits which says a user’s not und Lauren point
out a great Connelly wrote a paper about how PACs are evading the laws about
claims for light and and mild yeah whatever this existed spanned on
that Greg Connelly as a professor of Boston what they did you know sometime
after the tobacco companies had had gone over to the color code and you say did a
big national survey of smokers and asked them you know how you know which pack is
the full flavor which packet is the ultra light and with a very very high
level of precision smokers were able to pick with appropriately color-coded
packs okay I’m going to ask you to perhaps hypothesize a bit in a in a
pedestrian way and and I wonder what thoughts you have about color code the
color coding and advertising for nicotine replacement products as there
also is a big note there is a big market for that do you see that do you see
similar trends in in Nicorette and other nicotine replacement products that are
more controlled and have are those portrayed in a similar way to color
coding research well you know I’ve never looked at that and that’s a good
question the one thing I try can’t answer that
okay I can say or another that something worth looking at actually but another
thing that we haven’t looked at is that r.j. Reynolds actually has a nicotine
product sonic these are sold over the counter as
an alternative smoking but unlike conditioning replacement therapy which
immediate spices by the FDA is basically replacement therapy but unlike the
marketing of nicotine replacement therapy by pharmaceutical companies
which says you should use this product with counseling sonic is promoted as
just that something you can use what you can’t smoke and we ought to look at the
sonic packaging with all this ooh okay up on the effects of color acute or do
they involve a conditioning process so the effects become stronger with
increased exposure well you know I don’t these things have been around so long I
think they’re pretty well established but again Laura do you see anything on
that question I’m religion or go have you been reader
that this just disappeared PC disappears so not get lured Lauren
says that research that some color impacts are immediate your recommendations about
Oh about health messages being in in black font on yellow backgrounds is that
something you might generalize to more health messages other than the dangers
of of tobacco or do you look back to tobacco products only no I think again
you know if you’re if you’re driving down the road the warning signs are
black on yellow and people are conditioned the black eye yellow the
instinct and so I think that the black eyed yellow should be used on all kinds
of warning I noticed one are just putting messages of the base discipline
Canton law is a phone number she can call in listen to been taught she’s not
able to call in so her messages also the muscles then you keep the taggers I’m
reading from a distance the cactus traffic test measured by microseconds in
the amount of time it takes for people to react to color so that was what she
wrote the question I had was you know if you black on black text on yellow
background has kind of an automatic warning is there a flip is there are
there text or background colors that using connotates health-promoting and
that could be used to send you know healthy messages about less blood of
boys is healthy oh yeah I think it okay you did say that
sorry about that thing okay thank you is that white white is
held me that’s why they make the ultralight packages white or silver all
right well this has been wonderful thank you dr. Elle Woods for moderating the
question answer and thank you dr. glans and Lauren for participating by chat we
really appreciate that as a very engaging presentation on packaging color
and how that influences use and perception and I want to thank all of
you who joined online today if you have colleagues who wanted to see this
presentation or might want to see this presentation but weren’t able to join
please remind them that the recording of today’s webinar will be available in
about one month on the obssr website and this concludes today’s webinar thanks
everyone for attending and again thank you dr. glans for a wonderful and
thought-provoking presentation well thank you for having me and also Lauren
– the exception is here delicious thank you everyone